Design and planning manual : for cost-effective welding by American Welding Society

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Avoid the use of notches, sharp corners, or rapid changes of cross section (stress risers). • Peen the welds lightly during the welding process. • Prestress the weld joints prior to welding. • Avoid full penetration welds on heavy wall structural assemblies (jumbo sections). • In general, observing preheating and interpass temperature for a quenched and tempered metal or quench-hardened material will lower residual stresses. • Stress relieve the weldment. • Sequencing the weld by back stepping, balancing the weld around the neutral axis or welding toward rigidity.

2) Welds are geometric and metallurgical notches in base metal. (3) Welds in base metal frequently cause the designallowable stresses for fatigue to drop. (4) Welds can raise the residual stress in base metals to the yield point. (5) Keep weldment design simple. The weld is usually easier and less expensive to make. (6) Avoid welding when practical. Use standard shape material or use castings. Reduce component parts or the number of plates. (7) The weld and heat-affected zone are usually the weakest link in a weldment design.

The location of welds should always provide the welder easy and open access. The most costly welds to make are predominately those where proper welding access has not been provided for by the designer. If welding access is difficult, then Nondestructive Examination (NDE) will usually be difficult, as will any necessary follow up repairs. Snipes or “rat holes” should be as large as practical to provide access for welding and NDE. Designs should avoid welding across flanges under tension as drastic reductions to allowable service loads are imposed by most codes.

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