Decommissioning and Radioactive Waste Management by A. Rahman

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By A. Rahman

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This is the main finished and updated booklet which gives a close knowing of all points of the topic, from radiological security and nuclear protection to laws and functional issues.

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offers a close realizing of the problems linked to the methods of decommissioning and radioactive waste management. Read more...

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Explain how internal exposure occurs. Explain why an internal exposure to a small amount of radioactive material is more hazardous than an external exposure to the same amount even at close proximity.  Show diagrammatically the dose–response characteristic of the stochastic and deterministic effects, clearly indicating the parameters used in the axes. Why is it assumed that there is a threshold level of dose for the deterministic effect, but not for the stochastic effect? What is the significance of the latency period in biological damage?

The average delay time is about 12 s in U-235 fission. They are less energetic (~400 keV) and far less numerous than the prompt neutrons and consequently less significant from the radiological point of view. However, they become relatively more significant in a shut down reactor because of the delayed nature of their generation. 4 Neutron Dose Calculation For neutron dose calculations, neutron energies are conveniently divided into fast and thermal ranges and consequently the dose calculations are separated into: (i) fast neutron dose calculation; and (ii) thermal neutron dose calculation.

1–3. [2] National Radiological Protection Board, Risk from Deterministic Effects of Ionising Radiation, Documents of the NRPB, Vol. 7, No. 3,1996. 0, 2001. [4] International Atomic Energy Agency, International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionising Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources, Jointly sponsored by FAO, IAEA, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO, WHO, IAEA Safety Series No. 115, Vienna, 1996. [5] International Commission on Radiological Protection, Age Dependent Doses to Members of the Public from Intake of Radionuclides: Part 5, Compilation of Ingestion and Inhalation Dose Coefficients, ICRP Publication 72, 1996.

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