By Dennis Shasha, Philippe Bonnet
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Additional resources for Database Tuning: Principles, Experiments, and Troubleshooting Techniques (The Morgan Kaufmann Series in Data Management Systems)
So, the sum-of-deposits transaction overestimates the amount of money that is deposited. ■ ■ The previous example teaches two lessons. The two-phase condition should apply to reads as well as writes. ) give a default behavior in which write locks are held until the transaction completes, but read locks are released as soon as the data item is read (degree 2 isolation). This example shows that this can lead to faulty behavior. This means that if you want concurrent correctness, you must sometimes request nondefault behavior.
So, the first transaction commits. Then some other execution of this application program causes $50 to be removed from cash. When the first execution of the program commits its second transaction, cash will be in deficit by $25. So, dividing the application into two transactions can result in an inconsistent database state. Once you see it, the problem is obvious though no amount of sequential testing would have revealed it. Most concurrent testing would not have revealed it either because the problem occurs rarely.
There are three techniques for circumventing hot spots. 2. 5), Section 11. TEAM LinG - Live, Informative, Non-cost and Genuine! 34 CHAPTER TWO Tuning the Guts 1. Use partitioning to eliminate it, as discussed earlier. 2. Access the hot spot as late as possible in the transaction. Because transactions hold locks until they end, rewriting a transaction to obtain the lock on a hot data item as late as possible will minimize the time that the transaction holds the lock. 3. Use special database management facilities.