By J. Szejtli
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Decanol seems to be the most appropriate complexing agent for a-cyclodextrin. Since it is essentially insoluble in water, it can be stripped off by steam distillation, and it is permitted up to five ppm as a food additive. 5 mglml [ 71,72 1. The equilibrium of the reaction system can be shifted towards o:-cyclodextrin. Recovery is facilitated since when decanol is used the product is obtained in a crystalline form. The overall yield amounts to about 50% and is independent of the quality of starch used.
The occurrence of ~- and y-cyclodextrin can be ignored. A mixture of methyl ethyl ketone and an anionic detergent [ 315 1 is also appropriate as a conversion controlling agent. The a-cyclodextrin remains in the solution, and after the non-converted starch is hydrolysed by a-amylase, it is precipitated by cyclohexane. Overall yield of the pure a-cyclodextrin is 20-25%, based on starch. 5. Production of y-cyc1odextrin Currently available y-cyclodextrins are prepared by both controlled and uncontrolled conversion.
Figure 1-17) [ 14-6 ]. With some exceptions, cyclodextrins cannot be fermented, and cannot be utilised by yeasts. Various monographs [ 82,345,346 ] have summarised the early literature on cyclodextrin-degrading enzymes. Cyclodextrin inhibits the adsorption of cereal a-amylases onto starch granules, therefore inhibiting their amylolytic degradation [ 396 ]. 8 ~ ::l. 1-17. Degradation of cyclodextrins by A. oryzae a-amylase [ 146 1. phosphorylase [ 80,99], Bacillus polymyxa amylase [ 229,377 l, Aspergillus oryzae amylase [ 156,279 ], and hog pancreas amylase [ 250 1 can hydrolyse the cyclodextrins, but generally only slowly.