By Steve Doty
This sensible table reference for power engineers, now totally up to date and improved with new fabric all through, is designed to function a finished source for acting strength audits in advertisement amenities. even supposing there aren't any "typical" advertisement constructions, the booklet starts off with the basis that once advertisement amenities are subdivided into different types in accordance with enterprise variety, many helpful styles could be pointed out which turn into usually acceptable to the functionality of a good power audit. therefore, dialogue of techniques and guidance is supplied for a variety of company and development varieties, similar to colleges and faculties, eating places and speedy nutrition, hospitals and scientific amenities, grocery shops, laboratories, accommodation, residence constructions, workplace constructions, retail, public safeguard, info facilities, church buildings and spiritual amenities, libraries, laundries, warehouses and extra. All focal parts of the construction strength audit and evaluate are coated, together with development envelope, lighting fixtures, HVAC, controls, warmth restoration, thermal garage, electric structures and utilities. the second one variation presents new fabric on such themes as early alternative determination making, effect of hire preparations on power venture curiosity, coordination of upstream/downstream set issues, semiconductor fab multi-stage HVAC air tempering, commissioning, overlapping heating and cooling and masses extra.
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PRODUCTION EUI A similar approach can be used for manufacturing or other volumerelated activity. For example: If 500,000 screwdrivers are manufactured in a year, the energy cost per screwdriver can easily be calculated. In this example, energy is seen as an ingredient to the produced item, similar to steel or labor, and savings equate to reduced part cost and increased profit. Restaurants (meals per day) and hotels (average percent occupancy) are similar applications of production metrics. 6 Commercial Energy Auditing Reference Handbook EUI ADJUSTMENT FOR OCCUPANCY In office buildings, EUI benchmark values are for an ‘average’ office building, which includes ‘average’ occupancy.
Analyzing Energy Use Graphs 17 BUSINESS VOLUME (PRODUCTION RATES) Data points are normalized, 100% being the most production and most energy during the graphed period. When energy use does not go down proportionally with production, energy use per unit of product output increases and so the “ingredient cost” of energy in the part increases—and the profit margin for the part decreases. This concept applies equally to manufacturing, hotels, restaurants, etc. Example: Strong correlation (manufacturing) Figure 2-5a.
S. Census Bureau “Business Expenses” report. To get energy cost as a percent of total operating cost, divide the utility cost by the total operating expenses. Some typical energy cost per- 8 Commercial Energy Auditing Reference Handbook centages are shown in the Appendix item: “Operating Expenses: Percent that are from Utility Costs” LIMITATIONS OF USING BENCHMARK DATA While very useful, remember that benchmarks are averages. When a test value is significantly different than a benchmark, it prompts questions and may lead to opportunities.