By Igor J. Karassik, Roy Carter
This final, the schooling of pump clients, is exactly what this e-book used to be meant to do. To what volume we should have completed our function, our readers needs to make a decision. My pal and affiliate, J. T. (Terry) McGuire, and i've been operating very heavily jointly for a very long time. Our view of engineering difficulties and in their strategies coincide to an superb measure. while i used to be requested to arrange a moment version of my publication Centrifugal Pumps, it was once logical that I became to Terry and instructed that he be my coauthor in this venture. He agreed to take action, and his cooperation has been most dear, either in enhancing the consequent paintings and in easing my burden. it might be presumptuous on my half to faux that not anything has replaced within the know-how of centrifugal pumps through the 30 years on account that I ready the manuscript for the 1st variation of this e-book. permit me, then, communicate of a few of those changes.
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Casings and Diffusers 21 100 80 Radial Thrust % Thrust @O% Flow 60 40 20 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Flow-% BEP Fig. 4 Characteristic of radial reaction in a single-volute casing. F decreases from shutoff to design capacity and then increases with overcapacity. At overcapacity, the reaction is roughly in the opposite direction from that at partial capacity. reaction (F). A graphical representation of the typical change in this force with pump capacity is shown in Fig. ::gc of ~apacIty, radial reaction is a function of the total head and of the width and diameter of the impeller.
90° 0° 0% 180° -------------------4~----------------- 140% Ns = 1,700 Fig. 6 Direction of radial thrust. 50 percent of design capacity. For sustained operations at lower capacities, the pump manufacturer, if properly advised, would supply a heavier shaft, usually at a much higher cost. More recently, sustained operation at extremely low flows without informing the manufacturer at the time of purchase became a common practice. The result-broken shafts, especially on high-head units. Because of the increasing operation of pumps at reduced capacities, it has become desirable to design Casings and Diffusers 23 standard units to accommodate such conditions.
The bolting distribution is usually very complex, making it necessary to use finite element analysis to study overall joint quality under varying pressure at the individual stages. By definition any "model" of a part is an approximation, so prudence requires that FEA be occasionally verified or calibrated by experiment. Stress is checked using strain gages, and gross strain or deflection by checking the actual movement, or joint separation, at critical Fig. 2 Horizontal flange of an axially split six-stage pump casing.