By Patrick Seeling
Multimedia networking functions and, specifically, the shipping of c- pressed video are anticipated to give a contribution signi?cantly to the tra?c sooner or later web and instant networks. For shipping over networks, video is usually encoded (i. e. , compressed) to lessen the bandwidth specifications. Even compressed video, despite the fact that, calls for huge bandwidths of the order of hundred kbps or Mbps. additionally, compressed video streams in most cases - hibit hugely variable bit charges (VBR) in addition to lengthy diversity dependence (LRD) houses. This, along side the stringent caliber of provider (QoS) necessities (loss and hold up) of video tra?c, makes the delivery of video tra?covercommunicationnetworksachallengingproblem. Asaconsequence, within the final decade the networking examine neighborhood has witnessed an - plosion in examine on all elements of video shipping. The features of video tra?c, video tra?c modeling, in addition to protocols and mechanisms for the e?cient shipping of video streams, have acquired loads of curiosity between networking researchers and community operators and a plethora of video shipping schemes were built. For constructing and comparing video shipping mechanisms and for - seek on video networking as a rule, it can be crucial to have on hand a few characterizationofthevideo. Generally,therearethreedi?erentwaystoch- acterize encoded video for the aim of networking examine: (i)video tra?c model,(ii) video bit move, and (iii) video tra?c trace.