By Samir K. Khanal, Rao Y. Surampalli, Tian C. Zhang, Buddhi P. Lamsal, R. D. Tyagi, C. M. Kao
Biofuel and bioenergy made out of biowastes and biomass is a fresh strength resource that are produced renewably. The 21 chapters of this e-book supply state of the art stories, present learn, and know-how advancements with appreciate to 1st, 2d, and third new release biofuels and bioenergy. The booklet specializes in the biological/biochemical pathway, as this feature has been said to be the main not pricey approach for biofuel/bioenergy construction. the outlet bankruptcy covers the assessment of the present prestige of biofuel and bioenergy creation. the remainder of the chapters are grouped into seven different types; they hide biomethane creation, microbial gas cells, feedstock construction, preprocessing, biomass pretreatment, enzyme hydrolysis, and syngas fermentation. Algal approaches for biofuel creation, biobutanol creation, bioreactor platforms, and value-added processing of biofuel residues are incorporated. This booklet addresses lifestyles cycle analyses (LCA) of 1st and second new release biofuels (from corn, soybean, jatropha, and cellulosic biomass) and the rising purposes of nanotechnology in biofuel/bioenergy construction. The ebook is prepared in this type of manner that every previous bankruptcy builds a starting place for the subsequent one. on the finish of every bankruptcy, present examine traits and extra study wishes are defined. this can be one of many first books during this rising box of biofuel/bioenergy that gives in-depth technical info at the wide subject matters of biofuel and bioenergy with wide illustrations, case reports, precis tables, and updated references. This e-book could be important to researchers, teachers, senior undergraduate and graduate scholars, decision-makers, pros, and others attracted to the sphere of biofuel/bioenergy
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Additional info for Bioenergy and Biofuel from Biowastes and Biomass
The rate of hydrogen production by the dark fermentation process is quite slow with low yields, which are the drawbacks for this process. The organic acids produced after the fermentation process can be used in a photo-heterotrophic bacterial process to produce more H2. , 2002). Hydrogen production by photosynthetic bacteria using industrial wastewater is possible but these organisms prefer organic acids as carbon sources. In addition, the color of the wastewater can limit the light penetration and hence the hydrogen 34 BIOENERGY AND BIOFUEL FROM BIOWASTES AND BIOMASS production.
In CA, that uses industrial wastewater treatment digester gases as a fuel. Natural gas is used to augment the power source at times. Four MCFC units provide all the base load electrical power needed for the brewery. At the present time, FCs for producing electricity from APGs are expensive compared to other technologies, but with more research and development it is expected that the costs will be lower in the future (Bloomquist, 2006). The reduced air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions may be a significant benefit for these units.
The end products after the dark fermentation are mostly organic acids such as acetic, butyric and propionic acids. Lactic acid and ethanol have also been reported in some situations where the substrates or the environmental conditions were different. Yu et al. (2002) studied the hydrogen production from rice winery wastewater in an upflow anaerobic reactor with mixed cultures. The biogas was mostly H2 (53–61%) and CO2 (37–45%) with no detectable methane. 33 L/g VSS·d. van Ginkel et al. (2005) studied H2 production from food processing industrial wastewater (confectionary, apple and potato processor wastes).