By Jasone Cenoz, Fred Genesee
Offers theoretical, empirical, and useful bases for enforcing multilingual schooling programmes to organize scholars for a multilingual global. The publication addresses matters proper to multilingual acquisition, the mixing of content material guideline in multilingual programmes, instructor schooling, and the position of tradition in multilingual faculties. It additionally offers case stories of multilingual colleges in numerous elements of the area.
Read or Download Beyond Bilingualism: Multilingualism and Multilingual Education (Multilingual Matters) PDF
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Extra resources for Beyond Bilingualism: Multilingualism and Multilingual Education (Multilingual Matters)
In a similar vein, Cook (1992) has proposed the notion of `multicompetence' to designate a unique form of language competence that is not necessarily comparable to that of monolinguals. According to Cook, second language users should not be viewed as imitation monolinguals in a second language, but rather they should be seen to possess unique forms of competence, or competencies, in their own right (Cook, 1993: 270). Jessner (1997) also adopts a holistic view of bilingualism and emphasises the fact that multilingual competence is dynamic rather than static and notes further that language proficiency changes as a result of adjustments to the interacting linguistic subsystems that reflect the user's communicative needs.
Some aspects of the physical, natural and biological sciences can be learned in the second language/third language with the aid of visuals (such as pictures or video); they may be learned through observing an experiment as it is described and then carrying it under the direction of the teacher. Contemporary approaches to mathematics instruction often emphasise hands-on learning such as use of mathematics manipulatives and other forms of physical engagement to promote concept development. For young students (who are usually novice language learners), content-based language learning through concrete experiences is facilitated because the school curriculum for young students is by its very nature concrete.
Indeed, multilingualism and multilingual acquisition are often considered as simply variations on bilingualism and second language acquisition, and `second language acquisition' (SLA) is often used as a cover term to refer to any language other than the first language irrespective of the type of learning environment and the number of other non-native languages known by the learner (Sharwood Smith 1994: 7). Multilingual acquisition and multilingualism are complex phenomena. They implicate all the factors and processes associated with second language acquisition and bilingualism as well as unique and potentially more complex factors and effects associated with the interactions that are possible among the multiple languages being learned and in the processes of learning them.