Being Known by Christopher Peacocke

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By Christopher Peacocke

Being identified is a reaction to a philosophical problem which arises for each sector of inspiration: to reconcile a believable account of what's curious about the reality of statements in a given region with a reputable account of the way we will recognize these statements. Christopher Peacocke offers a framework for addressing the problem, a framework which hyperlinks either the speculation of information and the speculation of fact with the speculation of concept-possession.

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The striking fact is that all of these, and all of the other examples commonly used to establish the distinctness of senses, and indeed to introduce the notion of sense, are also cases in which the thinker can know that F(a) without knowing that F(b). The thinker can know that Hesperus is shining brightly this evening without knowing that Phosphorus is; the thinker can know that it is raining now, without knowing that it is raining at 3 o'clock; and so forth. To generalize: it seems to slice these senses no more finely, and to explain their identity equally well, if instead of speaking of rational judgement, we speak of knowledge.

However rich the content of a presupposition, we can always conceive of it being reached by an inadequate route. When a presupposition comes to be held by an inadequate route, its fulfilment cannot help to sustain knowledge, however rich its content. It is also important to distinguish sharply between presuppositions and what I will call ‘informational conditions’. The operation of some faculty or mechanism may result in the occurrence of some event which represents a certain content p as being correct.

It is quite implausible to suggest that this statement involving the past is a consequence of two other statements, one involving the past but a priori true, and the other not involving the past at all. True statements about the past are not somehow determined as true on the basis of some a priori principle or principles which, when taken in conjunction with other 27 S. Kripke, Naming and Necessity (Oxford: Blackwell, 1980;) D. Kaplan, ‘Demonstratives: An Essay on the Semantics, Logic, Metaphysics, and Epistemology of Demonstratives and Other Indexicals’, in J.

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