By Jean Lyon
Explores the procedures of monolingual language improvement in pre-school young children. Following an summary of kid bilingualism, this publication appears on the effect of the kid's kinfolk atmosphere and the standards which are expecting the language use of the kid.
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Additional info for Becoming Bilingual: Language Acquisition in a Bilingual Community
To the learning process,' (1986:176). Gleitman and colleagues (1984), have acknowledged that the effects of maternal characteristics vary with the language stage of younger children. Neither innate abilities nor environmental influences alone can account for the acquisition of language. The First words and Beyond Children spend a long time at the single-word stage. At one time it was suggested that these single words stood for complete utterances, holo-phrases, as the memory or the physiology of the child was too immature to make full expression possible, (Menyuk, 1969, for example).
Even there the goal of deliberation is profoundly different from what we are accustomed to in Western cultures . . The goal of deliberation is not to convince . . Rather it is to create a spiritual consensus. (Givon, 1985:1025). For children themselves, they must learn the meaning ascribed to actions and feelings by their culture. Initially mothers mark these actions for their children, teaching them the socially defined requirements of a situation (Shotter, 1979). Children are taught to wave bye-bye and play peek-a-boo before they are a year old, and before they go to school they know that completing a jigsaw is a socially significant event usually followed by praise.
From a 10% sample of the Welsh Census data for 1981, Williams (1987) has been able to show that if both parents speak Welsh, 91% of their children speak Welsh, whereas if only one parent speaks Welsh this drops to 36% for Welsh-speaking fathers and 42% for Welsh speaking mothers. He does not make it clear, but these figures represent people who were asked if they could speak Welsh, not if they did speak Welsh. It is possible that many of the 'parents who speak Welsh' can do so, but rarely choose to do so.