By Hrvoj Vančik
This e-book is designed for college students of biology, molecular biology, ecology, medication, agriculture, forestry and different professions the place the data of natural chemistry performs the $64000 function. The paintings can also be of curiosity to non-professionals, in addition to to lecturers in excessive faculties. The publication includes eleven chapters that disguise: - uncomplicated rules of constitution and structure of natural compounds, - the weather of the nomenclature, - the innovations of the character of chemical bond, - introductions in NMR and IR spectroscopy, - the ideas and major sessions of the natural response mechanisms, - reactions and homes of universal periods or natural compounds, - and the advent to the chemistry of the traditional natural items by way of simple ideas of the reactions in dwelling cells.
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The priorities depend on the atomic number of the atom bound to the C-atom of the double bond. In our example, the left C-atom is bound to atoms C and H. Since the atomic number of C is greater than the atomic number of H, the CH3 group has priority over H. The right C-atom is connected to atoms Br and C with Br having higher atomic number. Hence, Br has priority over the CH2Cl group. While in the left isomer, the groups with highest priorities (CH3 and Br) are on the same side and the structure is the Z-isomer, the groups with the highest priority in the right isomers are on the opposite sides making this the E-isomer.
This empirical finding is known as the Markovnikov rule. Explanation of this rule was not possible in Markovnikov’s time because the theory of chemical reactions and electronic structure had not yet been developed. To gain deeper insight into the details of the observed behavior it is necessary to introduce a new chemical concept, the reaction mechanisms. The mechanism of chemical reaction describes successive events along the way from reactants (the starting substances) to the products. What is the nature of these successive steps?
1 Constitution and Nomenclature In contrast to the relatively unreactive alkanes, alkenes and alkynes are chemically reactive because they have double and triple carbon-carbon bonds as functional groups. In the IUPAC nomenclature the names of alkenes end with the suffix -ene and the position of the double bond is labeled by number of the C-atom on which this double bond begins. In analogy with alkanes with branched chains, the root of the word is the name of the longest chain of C-atoms and the atom numbering is arranged H.