A Reference Grammar of Russian (Reference Grammars) by Alan Timberlake

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By Alan Timberlake

This textbook describes and systematizes all facets of the grammar of Russian--including styles of orthography, sounds, inflection, syntax, tense-aspect-mood, be aware order, and intonation. it truly is specifically inquisitive about the that means of combos of phrases (constructions) and the middle thought is that of the predicate historical past (a list of the states of entities via time and throughout possibilities). utilizing predicate histories, the publication provides an built-in account of the semantics of verbs, nouns, case, and element. it's going to entice scholars, students and language pros drawn to Russian.

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Extra info for A Reference Grammar of Russian (Reference Grammars)

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This pronunciation is what might be expected given the pronunciation of unstressed {o} after paired hard consonants: djlƒ [v dƒ] ‘water’. Vowels of series {a} show variation between two variants, [ ] and [ï]. The older pronunciation was [S‹o εï ], later [S‹o ïε ], now [ï]. Throughout the nineteenth century up until the beginning of the twentieth century, [S‹o εï ], later [Sï‹ ε ], was used in native words. Both variants occurred in borrowings, with a stylistic difference: [ ], which was closer to the pronunciation of the (often French) sources, was a mark of “spoken language of good society,”26 in contradistinction to the pronunciation that fit the native Russian pattern, with [S‹o εï ]/[S‹o ïε ].

6 Post-tonic soft vocalism In general, unstressed vowels associated with series {a o e} are pronounced as a high front vowel [ì] after any soft consonant. For this reason, one might expect to find [ì] in place of post-tonic vowels in grammatical endings as well. It is regularly stated, however, that this vowel can, depending on the morpheme, be pronounced as [´]. Grammatical morphemes differ, and there is some change -and some disagreement among authorities. 30 There is a gradation of possibilities, from regular [´] to regular [ì].

That stressed vowel is normally longer than other vowels. Vowels far away from 29 30 A Reference Grammar of Russian the stressed vowel are very short. Vowels of the syllable immediately before the stressed syllable are intermediate in duration; they are shorter than stressed vowels, longer than other unstressed vowels. By virtue of being longer, stressed vowels have more extreme articulations; the tongue has the time to reach further to the perimeters of the vocal tract -- to be pronounced higher and further front, or higher and further back, or lower down.

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